By Donald Kagan

In the fourth and ultimate quantity of his magisterial historical past of the Peloponnesian battle, Donald Kagan examines the interval from the destruction of Athens' Sicilian excursion in September of 413 B.C. to the Athenian give up to Sparta within the spring of 404 B.C. via his examine of this final decade of the battle, Kagan evaluates the functionality of the Athenian democracy because it confronted its so much severe problem. even as, Kagan assesses Thucydides' interpretation of the explanations for Athens’ defeat and the destruction of the Athenian Empire.

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Either sooner than and good after this public occasion, such a lot Athenians believed that the 5 'Atb. Pol. 30 describes the structure for the longer term. For worthwhile discussions of its provisions and of earlier scholarship, see HCT V; and Rhodes, remark, advert loco 'Such is the very believable reconstruction of occasions via Rhodes (Commentary, 406). He follows the overall method of Meyer (Forscb, II, 415-435) and Hignett (HAC, three 59-360, 373)· 9Andrewes, PCPS XXII ( 1 976), eleven. THE 400 IN energy 161 Thousand may well exist already. I n any case, a first-rate goal of this prop­ aganda used to be the Athenian strength at Samos, and the warriors and sailors there might be persuaded much more simply. 10 through their formal and ceremonial assumption of energy, their ebook of the constitutions, and the implicit facts they looked as if it would provide that the 5 Thousand either existed and functioned, the 400 was hoping to realize inner concord and the exterior legitimacy so they can take care of the intense difficulties they confronted. numerous problems prevent a passable knowing of the re­ gime of the 400 throughout the short interval of fewer than 4 months in which it governed ! ' the 1st is the very brevity of the regime; in so brief a interval there has been little time for plans and intentions to bare themselves. Our significant resources, additionally, weren't in Athens on the time and have been depending on hugely biased studies at a time while partisan feeling ran surprisingly excessive. a few of the very important actors have been accomplished at the cave in of the regime, and others fled into exile. club within the 400 used to be no longer anything of which somebody in Athens could later boast, so any details on hand from sur­ vivors in the ruling staff might most likely were selective and tendentious. The proof we obtain from modern orations suffers from a similar disabilities. loads of what the 400 deliberate and set in movement lies buried within the silence of these contributors who didn't live to tell the tale the regime and the silence and dis­ tortions of these who did. nonetheless one other trouble arises from the di­ imaginative and prescient in the ruling crew that looks to have existed from the beginning, even if its public manifestations didn't ensue until eventually later . hence it's always not easy to inform even if an motion of the 400 represents the perspectives of 1 or one other faction or a compromise among the 2. nonetheless, it really is either very important and attainable to check the paintings of the 400, even supposing we're usually pressured to hotel to conjecture in trying to realize it. The regime was once born in quandary, and its leaders right away faced difficulties they can no longer stay away from. Their such a lot fast and urgent want used to be to set up themselves securely in Athens. they have to additionally be able to win over the Athenian forces "'Ibid . , with n. 20. "Alh. Pol. three three . 1 says that they governed for "about 4 months" (MfJvae; ! LEv oW wwe; T€T7apae;) and that their archon the following yr (4 1 1/10) held place of work just for months. due to the fact that they took energy at the fourteenth or twenty-second day of the penultimate month of the former yr (4 1 2II I), their regime may have lasted no less than to 3 weeks below 4 months.

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