By Andrew Wolpert

In 404 BCE the Peloponnesian conflict eventually got here to an finish, while the Athenians, starved into submission, have been pressured to simply accept Sparta's phrases of give up. presently afterwards a bunch of thirty conspirators, with Spartan backing ("the Thirty"), overthrew the democracy and confirmed a slender oligarchy. even supposing the oligarchs have been in strength for under 13 months, they killed greater than five percentage of the citizenry and terrorized the remainder by means of confiscating the valuables of a few and banishing many others. regardless of this brutality, contributors of the democratic resistance flow that regained regulate of Athens got here to phrases with the oligarchs and agreed to an amnesty that secure collaborators from prosecution for all however the so much critical crimes.
The struggle and next reconciliation of Athenian society has been a wealthy box for historians of old Greece. From a rhetorical and ideological viewpoint, this era is exclusive as a result of outstanding lengths to which the Athenians went to keep up peace. In Remembering Defeat, Andrew Wolpert claims that the peace was once "negotiated and built in civic discourse" and never imposed upon the population. instead of explaining why the reconciliation used to be profitable, as a manner of laying off gentle on alterations in Athenian ideology Wolpert makes use of public speeches of the early fourth century to think about how the Athenians faced the troubling thoughts of defeat and civil battle, and the way they defined to themselves an contract that allowed the conspirators and their collaborators to move unpunished. Encompassing rhetorical research, trauma reviews, and up to date scholarship on identification, reminiscence, and legislations, Wolpert's research sheds new gentle on a pivotal interval in Athens' history.

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30. 15: ‘‘I don't have pointed out this, yet i've got realized that he'll try and store himself and defy justice by way of claiming to be a democrat and that he'll use his exile as evidence of his loyalty. ’’ Isoc. 18. 48–50; cf. Isoc. sixteen. 14. Cf. Lys. 10. 26–28. Isoc. sixteen. forty-one; cf. 12–14. Gribble (1999: 128) indicates, ‘‘He doesn't truly evaluate Alcibiades’ exile to that of the jurors: he in basic terms encourages them to consider Alcibiades’ event when it comes to their very own. ’’ yet truly the aim of such statements used to be to check in addition to to conflate Alcibiades’ exile with that of the boys of Piraeus. differently, the speaker do not have pointed out how Alcibiades su√ered the ‘‘same misfortunes’’ because the democratic resistance (12) or how his su√erings have been ‘‘at the fingers of an analogous people’’ (41). in line with such makes an attempt to rehabilitate Alcibiades, the speaker of Lysias 14 insisted that Alcibiades’ explanations have been disloyalty and immorality. See Gribble (1999: 131, 134–35). Isoc. sixteen. 13–15; cf. Lys. 14. 32–33. Lys. thirteen. ninety. against this, 4 speeches and one fragment live to tell the tale brought by means of males who had remained in Athens in the course of the oligarchic rule (Lys. 7. 27, forty-one; sixteen; 25; Isoc. 18; P. Ryl. 489). Adams (1905: 138) argues, ‘‘The indisputable fact that Mantitheus selected this time to come back to the town, and that he used to be admitted through the management, appears to be like as if he was once avowedly on their aspect. ’’ So Murphy (1992: 547–48) observes in relation to Lysias 25. For an research of the political protection speeches in Lysias, see Lateiner (1981). Council: Lys. 25. 14; P. Ryl. 489 ll. 111–12; o≈ces: Lys. 25. 14; P. Ryl. 489 ll. 112–13; cavalry: Lys. sixteen. three. those also are the common fees lodged opposed to the lads of town. Arrests: Lys. 25. 15; cf. Pl. Ap. 32c4–d8; arbitration: Lys 25. sixteen; P. Ryl. 489 ll. 113–16; Lysander’s record: Lys. 25. sixteen; Isoc. 18. sixteen; P. Ryl. 489 ll. 116–18. The ‘‘list,’’ even supposing pointed out di√erently in those passages, most likely contained the names of these Athenians who have been faraway from the citizen roll and compelled to serve in Lysander’s military; see Roberts (1938: iii. 109); Krentz (1982: 78). Loening (1987: 104 n. 15) means that they have been despatched to Lysander as hostages. Lys. 25. thirteen; so additionally Lys. 20. 31; P. Ryl. 489 ll. 93–99. Cf. Murphy (1992: 555–56). Lys. 7. 27; cf. Isoc. 15. 27; Lys. 26. 17. club at the Council: And. 1. ninety five; Isoc. sixteen. forty three; provider within the cavalry: Lys. 26. 10; arrests: And. 1. ninety four; Lys. 26. 18; executions: Lys. 26. 18, 30. 14. in addition to the five speeches introduced by means of audio system who had remained within the urban ∞∏∏ 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. ∏ F N O T E S T O PA G E S 1 1 five – 1 three 1 in the course of the rule of Thirty and insisted they had no half within the oligarchy, audio system in 4 different speeches denied accusations of oligarchic actions (And. 1; Lys. 20, 30; Isoc. 16). Lys. 20. five, 13–14; see Lateiner (1981: 150). This comparable phenomenon happened after the overthrow of the Peisistratids. instead of recognize that the tyrants had got wide aid from fellow electorate, the Athenians insisted they had hostile the regime; see Lavelle (1993: esp. 79–85, 106–25).

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