By David Konstan

This e-book is a heritage of friendship in Greece and Rome, from the warrior society of the Homeric epics to the time of the Christian Roman Empire. It demonstrates how historical friendship resembles glossy conceptions, and the way it evolves in numerous social contexts. The booklet sheds new mild on such questions as friendship and democracy, the significance of acquaintances in executive and in philosophical groups, women's friendships, and the transformation of friendship lower than the effect of Christian rules of brotherhood.

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Injunctions opposed to secrecy are a function of ideas for monastic existence. the following 6 7 Cf. McNamara 1958: 209. internal guy: cf. Augustine, Ep. 2; on inferiority in Augustine as opposed to Plato's imaginative and prescient of exterior types, see Taylor 1989: 131; sleek authenticity: cf. Gill 1994. Cambridge Books on-line © Cambridge collage Press, 2010 Downloaded from Cambridge Books on-line by means of IP 147. 231. seventy nine. one hundred ten on Thu might 20 13:45:49 BST 2010. http://dx. doi. org/10. 1017/CBO9780511612152. 006 Cambridge Books on-line © Cambridge college Press, 2010 Hypocrisy and friendship 153 back, the relationship with the philosophical colleges might be suitable, even though Markus (1990: eighty) overstates the case while he concludes that "the Stoic excellent of friendship came upon its fulfilment in monasticism" (Pythagoreans had probably a bigger influence). below stipulations of collective residing, the place team unity and non secular development have been crucial matters, the emphasis fell extra on generalized charity and the necessity for honesty than on ties among pairs of people, that can be disruptive to the group, fairly except the risks of erotic attachments, to which the Greek fathers have been rather alert. during this means, the classical excellent of friendship is subtly altered, as specific bonds among everyone is displaced via a priority for a broader harmony between communicants as such. the consequences of this shift are discernible in addition open air the constrained sphere of the cloister and seminary. eight HYPOCRISY AND FRIENDSHIP The twenty second oration via the fourth-century advert rhetorician Themistius, a pagan who opened a college in Constantinople and was once show, below Theodosius I, to the longer term emperor Arcadius, is entitled "On Friendship" [Periphilias). Early within the speech, Themistius observes: For a chum [philos] is nowhere close to a flatterer [kolax], and is furthest got rid of during this, that the only praises every little thing, whereas the opposite wouldn't go together with you if you are erring; for the previous is determined on creating a revenue or stuffing his abdominal via his efforts, and isn't inspired with you, yet together with your funds or your energy [dunasteia]. (276c; cf. Maximus of Tyre, Or. 14. 6) right here Themistius reproduces the normal Hellenistic distinction among friendship and adulation (cf. above, pp. 98-103), cheerfully tossing in an allusion to the comedian determine of the parasite within the strategy. yet Themistius additionally comments that the pursuit of friendship is endangered notably via "that generally known as hypocrisy [hupokrisis] via humans in our time" (267b). Themistius ends his discourse with a model of the story of Heracles' selection, comparable first by means of Prodicus in Xenophon's Memorabilia (2. 1. 21-34). In Xenophon's model, the 2 allegorical lady figures among whom Heracles is invited to settle on are pointed out as advantage (Arete) and Vice (Kakia); the latter describes eight On self-disclosure in a monastic context, see Gould 1993: 30-3, 63-6; Pythagoreans: see Wilson 1975: fifty nine on Athanasius', and maybe Basil's, acquaintance with Iamblichus' writings; erotic attachments: McGuire 1988: xli-xlii; broader harmony: Treu 1972: 431.

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